Behavioral Diagnostics Toolkit

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Perception of Others

Intergroup Bias

Intergroup bias (sometimes called In-group favoritism, in-group-out group bias, or in-group bias) describes the idea that we can irrationally (and unknowingly) favor members of a group in which we are also members, over outsiders.
For example, fans of a sports team may view other fans more favorably than they would fans of rival teams.

Illusion of Transparency

The illusion of transparency refers to our tendency to overestimate the degree to which our thoughts, feelings, emotions, and moods, are clearly understood by others, as well as our own ability to discern the mental states of others.
For example, in one study, public speakers exaggerated how obvious their anxiety about giving their speech could be perceived by the crowd. They assumed that because they felt so nervous everyone would be able to easily notice.

Halo Effect

The tendency to make general judgments of another person based on a single, salient quality or attribute. We may be more inclined to like or dislike new things we learn about people, based heavily on what we thought of them originally.

Group Attribution Error

The tendency to believe that the individuals making up a group reflect the preferences and characteristics of the group as a whole. Just because a person can be associated with a defined group, does not mean they necessarily support positions, ideas, or beliefs, commonly associated with that group.

Fundamental Attribution Error

Road rage for all the wrong reasons – Fundamental Attribution Error refers to our tendency to interpret that people’s actions are driven by internal motivators, before considering the effect of their context or the influence of external factors.
For example, if someone cuts you off while driving you may attribute it to them being a bad driver but it may have been because the sun was blocking their vision from seeing you. Also known as the correspondence bias.

False Consensus Effect

The world is my mirror…The false consensus effect refers to our tendency to overestimate the degree to which those around us share our thoughts, feelings, beliefs, or perspective.
For example, you may believe that everyone thinks that saving for retirement is important because you feel that way.

Extrinsic Incentives Bias

Extrinsic Incentives bias refers to our tendency to presume that other people are more motivated by external factors (money, promotions, public praise, etc.) than intrinsic one’s (personal growth, increased sense of well-being, sense of relevance, etc.)